A. Background

          As we already know the word insurance is not new in our hearing. But the understanding of the insurance itself deeply, people not familiar with and know. That the general public knows about insurance just as security and aid dependence to others and often mentioned insurance is forbidden to masnyarakat layman. Though the meaning and the true role of insurance in this very well and provide benefits between the two sides, both the insurance company and its customers.
          With the insurance can provide peace and relaxation in the affair, because we have insurance do not need to worry to face the risks that will come in the future, and also help us in the face of affairs if any - time calamity or disaster we do not mess around with the imposition of risk or any losses because it has no firm will bear all the appropriate agreements that have been made previously.
          In Indonesia itself has plenty of company - a company that runs the field of insurance, we stayed to pick and choose which insurance we will take according to your needs and our finances. To be able to select and sort out the insurance, it would require considerable knowledge of the basic notions - basic insurance. Thus the author intended for knowledge about the basics - basic knowledge about insurance that will be discussed in chapter 2 of the discussion.

B. Problem Formulation

          In this paper, we discuss some basic insurance, which will be discussed such as:
1. Definition of insurance.
2. Type - the type of insurance.
3. The benefits of insurance.
4. Type - the type of risk.
5. The principle - the principle of insurance.

C. Benefits of Making Paper

          As we have seen in the formulation of the problem there are things - things that will be discussed in this paper with regard to insurance. Once the reader reading this paper is expected to be able to master and find out about the basics - which are directly related to insurance. Minimum readers will learn the true meaning and understanding of the insurance and the benefits of such insurance.


A. Understanding Insurance

          Nobody can predict what will happen in the future perfectly, though using a variety of analysis tools. Each forecast is made will not be separated from error calculation has been performed. The cause slipping of the results forecast for the future is full of uncertainties even for certain things simply can not be taken into account as death and sustenance. So naturally if something happening in the future can only be cooked up - them alone.

          Future risk can happen to a person's life such as death, illness or risk of being fired from his job. In the business world can be a risk facing the risk of loss due to fire, damage or loss or other risks. Hence, any risk that will be faced to be addressed so as not to cause even greater losses.

          To reduce the risk that we do not want in the future, such as the risk of loss, risk of fire, the risk of a breakdown of bank loans or other risks, then diperlukna companies that want to bear the risk. Is an insurance company that is willing and able to bear any risks that would be faced by customers, both individuals and businesses bada. This is due to the insurance company is a company that does business terhapad insurance risks to be faced by customers. [1]

          Insurance is a form of risk control, by way of transfer / transfer of risk from the first party to the other party, in this case, to the insurer. Transfer is based on legal rules and principles that apply familiar, embraced by the first or any other party. [2]

        In Indonesia sense of Insurance according to the Law - Law # 1 of 1992 on Insurance Business is as follows: Insurance or coverage is an agreement between two or more parties, with which the binding to the insured for the loss, damage or loss of expected benefits, or responsibilities legal liability to third parties which may be suffered by the insured, arising from an uncertain events, or to provide a payment based on death or life of an insured person.
 Agency risk that channel called "insured", and the agency receiving the risk of so-called "insurer". The agreement between these two bodies is called policy: This is a criminal contract that explains each of the terms and conditions are protected. Fees paid by the "insured" to "person for the risks covered by so-called" premium ". This is usually determined by those responsible for the funds that can be claimed in the future, administrative costs, and profits. Meanwhile, according to Commercial code article 246:

"Insurance or coverage is an agreement by which a binding to an insured, to receive a premium, for reimbursement to him for damage to or loss of expected benefits that may be suffered due to an event that is not necessarily".

Based on these definitions, then the insurance contained four elements, namely:
1. The insured (insured) which promised to pay the premiums to the insurer, all at once or gradually.
2. The insurer (insure) that promises to pay a sum of money (compensation) to the insured, all at once or gradually, when something happens that contain certain elements.
3. An event (coincidence) that is not terntentu (time unknown).
4. Interest (interest) that may experience losses due to certain events that do not. 

Based on this definition, the insurance is a form of agreement which must be fulfilled requirements as in Article 1320 of the Civil Code, but with the characteristic that the insurance agreement is speculative as stated in Article 1774 of the Civil Code. According to Article 1774 of the Civil Code, namely:

"An agreement of chance (chance-overeenkomst) is an act that is the result, on balance, good for all parties and the temporary side, depending on an event that is not necessarily".

The insurance agreement where the insured and the insurer bind an agreement on terms and obligations of each - each. Insurance companies charge a premium to be paid the insured premium to be paid previously forecasted first or offset against the value of risks to be faced. The greater the risk, the greater the premium to be paid, and vice versa. Insurance contract insurance are stated in the policy, which stated loaded - loaded, rights - rights, obligations each - each party, the amount insured and the insurance period. If there is a risk in the insurance period, the insurance company will pay in accordance with the agreements that have been made and signed with the previous. 

In the Dutch language the word insurance are desebut Assurantie which consists of the word "assuradeur" which means the underwriting and "geassureerde" which means the insured. Then in French called "warranty" which means bear the something must have happened. Meanwhile, in Latin called "Assecurare" which means convincing people. Furthermore, insurance kara English called "coverage" means menaggung something that may or may not happen and "assurance" which means bear the something must have happened. [3] The understanding of the science of insurance, according to some experts, including:

1. Definition of insurance by Prof Mehr and Cammack:
"Insurance is a means to reduce financial risk, by collecting exposure units in sufficient numbers, to make the individual losses can be estimated. Then the predictable loss was borne equally by those who belong to".
2. Definition of insurance by Prof Mark R. inexperienced:
"Insurance is an economic institution which aims to reduce risk, by combining in a number of management objects large enough numbers, so that the overall loss can be predicted within certain limits".
3. Definition of insurance by Arthur C. William Jr. and Richard M. Heins, which defines the insurance is based on two perspectives, namely:

"Insurance is a security against financial loss by an insurer and insurance is an agreement by which two or more persons or entities to raise funds to cover financial loss". 

Based on these definitions above would be about the definition of insurance that can cover all points of view:

"Insurance is a means to reduce the risk inherent in the economy, in a way combining number of units exposed to the risk of the same or nearly the same, in large enough quantities, so that the probability of losses can be predicted and if the predicted losses will occur will be divided proportionately by all parties in the joint. "[4]

B. Type - This type of insurance type - a type of insurance that is growing in Indonesia if viewed from various aspects are as follows:

1. Viewed in terms of its function

a. General insurance (non-life insurance)
This type of insurance losses as contained in the Act - Act No. 2 of 1992 on Insurance Business insurance explained that running a business providing services to menanggunglangi a risk of damages, lost benefits and legal liability to third parties of an event that is not certain. This type of insurance is not allowed to do business outside the insurance and reasusansi. Then the remasuk in insurance losses are as follows:
- Fire insurance covering fire, explosion, lightning, aircraft and other accidents.
- Insurance transporting includes:
- Marine Hul policy
- Marine shipment policy
- Freight
- Miscellaneous insurance, that insurance is not included in fire insurance and include some lean transporting vehicle insurance, accident of theft, and others.

b. Life insurance 
Life insurance is an insurance company that is associated with the reduction or death of an insured person. Type - the type of life insurance is:
- Term insurance (term insurance)
- Insurance Savings (Endowment insurance)
- Life insurance (entire life insurance)
- Anuity contrak insurance (Annuity)

c. Reinsurance 
Is a company that provides insurance services in dealing with risks faced by the insurance company. This type of insurance is often called insurance from insurance and insurance is classified into:
- form of treaty
- Form of facultative
- combination of both

2. In terms of ownership

In this case that is seen is who the owner of the insurance company, both general insurance or reinsurance asutansi soul.
A. Insurance owned by the government
Namely insurance, which is controlled largely or even a hundred% by the Indonesian government.

B. privately owned national insurance
This insurance ownership of a wholly-owned national private so that anyone who has the most shares it has the highest suata the General Meeting of Holders of Shareholders (GMS).

C. Insurance-owned foreign company.
Arusansi company of this type typically operate in Indonesia only a branch of another country and clear ownership was one hundred% owned by foreigners.

D. Insurance proprietary blend
Is a type of insurance that is owned by a mix of national Stasta with foreign parties.

C. Advantage Insurance 
against the community's knowledge of insurance services is not yet as her understanding of both conventional savings in commercial banks and sharia financial institution. Yet in terms of financial management, with various forms of insurance services, the same discipline in terms of managing finances, especially for certain posts that are emergencies. Although the management of insurance continues to rise and a wide range of insurance provided by large insurance company, the image in the community about the insurance company does not salamanya positive. Some models of the negative stigma against the insurance company for example mortgaging the lives of the institution, for this kind of health insurance or accident. Hard to take care of claims, for almost all types of insurance. Whereas the latter is just because the information is not legitimate or administrative requirements could not be fulfilled. 

With the knowledge that has not been good about insurance, so insurance benefits for some communities in Indonesia is not understood yet. Thus, the insurance culture is still not too familiar in Indonesian society. If already have an understanding that the name accidents can not be predicted so need to prepare a special funds as preparation for tackling emergencies, many think to prepare for these funds in the form of savings and buy gold instead become the customer in the form of health insurance or life insurance, for example. 

Generally the cause is not attraction of the Indonesian people against various insurance application are some communities in Indonesia still have a less stable economy. So that they are more opt to spend their money to buy their daily needs than to anything else that is considered less important or to prepare the things that was an emergency. It is undeniable with the limited income, Indonesian society is still difficult to meet the needs of the posts. So it is still struggling to address the need for posts that are primary and secondary needs alone. And understanding the needs of primary and secondary as well understood in the narrow sense. 

One is insurance. If we examine the benefits, the actual insurance software includes a primary need. That's why even put forward should not be surprised about the benefits of this insurance, but the view of some communities in Indonesia insurance is tantamount to throwing money away. In addition there are the views of people who think that insurance is haram. Therefore, it is considered by insurance as well as the safety and mortgaged themselves relying on their fellow human beings. In fact, such a view is actually a misnomer. Because basically insurance instead of throwing money or rely on fellow human safety issues. Basically, insurance is an activity that is diverting the risk of something on a third party. So if we get a calamity or disaster, which would replace all the losses we are insurers. In nominal values, we will seek compensation for all the things that have been pledged to the insurance company. So even if there are events or emergencies, insurance customers need not be confused as often experienced by people, especially when money in savings or valuables are not enough. It is undeniable that when issuing a claim against the company or demand our rights as clients of the insurance company, not easy to cash in savings or sell valuables such as gold. To submit a claim to the insurance company needed administrative requirements that are actually from the beginning has been agreed. This is mainly as one of the measures to overcome a variety of ways bad guys who take advantage of this insurance claim process. Thus when the administrative requirements have been met, the insurance company would easily carry out the various claims submitted by its customers. Even today the insurance companies have worked with other companies directly, such as hospitals or health clinics for this type of health insurance or life insurance. So when a health insurance customers experiencing an emergency, please show your insurance card, and hospitals or health clinics that are directly submit a claim to the insurance company after serving the insurance customers.
Advantages of the insurance business for each - each party is as follows.

1. For clients People who reject the concept of insurance, usually due to their lack of knowledge on insurance benefits. In addition, there is a traditional stigma that causes a person already feels a priori on the word insurance. Some of the negative stigma as previously mentioned increasingly believed to be true when the insurance company's own example does not provide clear and appropriate education. In spite of it all, some insurance benefits that can be obtained when a person become customers of insurance companies, among others:
A. Providing a sense of security and peace of life.
B. Represents deposit upon maturity pace irrevocable.
C. Avoid the risk of damage or loss.
D. Make money in the future.
E. Obtaining replacement due to damage or loss.
F. Make someone could be more orderly in managing their finances.
G. Facilitate affairs.

2. For insurance companies
A. Advantages of the premium given to the customer.
B. Advantages of results of equity participation in other companies.
C. The advantage of the interest of the investment in the letter - securities.
D. Type - Risk Type asurasni In insurance there are many different types of risks faced, the size of a risk is one of the considerations the insurance premium to be paid. In peraktinya risk - risks arising from any provision of business insurance coverage is as follows:
1. Risk of pure, meaning that there is uncertainty over the loss of something happening or in other words, there are only losers opportunity and not a profit opportunity, an example of the house might be on fire, or be hit by a car driven or ship and muatanya will probably sink. So in this case a loss occurs or does not occur at all.
2. speculative risk, meaning the risk of the occurrence of two possibilities, namely the opportunity to experience financial loss or gain in this case the possibility of loss or gain.
3. The risk individuals

Risk individuals divided into three kinds:
A. Perbadi risk, the risk of a person's ability to earn a profit, due to such things as illness, job loss or death.
B. Risk assets, the risk of loss of property if stolen lost or damaged, causing financial loss.
C. The risk of liability, namely the risk that we bear the losses caused when a person, and we have to pay. Examples kelalayan road which caused other people got hit and had to replace the losses.
E. Principles - Principles of Insurance Implementation insurance contract between the insurance company with the nasabannya can not be done arbitrarily. Each agreement contains perinsip done - perinsip insurance. The purpose is to avoid things - that are not desirable in the future between the insurance company with the customers.

Principles - perinsip insurance in question is as follows:
1. Insurable interest is based on the law to underwrite a risk related to finance, which is legally recognized between the insured and an insured and could lead to the legal and financial obligations. All this is illustrated by the insurance contract. Then in this case need to mention their interests furious terhapa insured.
2. Utmost precise AUA faith "good faith" in the determination of each contract should be based on good faith between the insured and the insurer on all material information both real and ummaterill.
3. Indeminity or compensation means controlling the position leuangan tertanggu after a loss as to the position before the loss occurred. In case this does not apply to contracts of life insurance and accident insurance for perinsip is based on the loss of a financial nature.
4. Proximate cause is a cause of active, efficient resulting in a chain of such event or sequence or intervinsi other powers, initiated and are actively working on a new and independent source.
5. Subrogation is the insurer who has indemnified the insured to sue another for the resulting interest suransi suffered a loss event. Aritnya with these principles requires the restitution can not be greater than the losses actually suffered.
6. Contribution a perinsip where underwriting reserves the right to invite the person - another person who have similar interests to join together to pay compensation to the insured person, although the number of dependents each - each person is not necessarily equal.

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